Very first, new hill of your matchmaking BP which have Na consumption ranged because of the energy consumption, suggesting you to Na density could possibly get echo the partnership that have BP most useful than just pure Na intake do
There was a significant 3-way interaction between Na intake, energy, and obesity status for SBP (P=0.033); for DBP, the 3-way interaction was not significant, but there was a significant interaction between energy intake and obesity (P=0.005). In stratified models, the association of Na with SBP was stronger at lower energy intake (higher Na density) than at higher energy intake (lower Na density) in both nonobese (interaction of Na with energy; P<0.001) and obese (interaction of Na with energy; P=0.028); the association of Na and DBP by energy intakes was similar (interaction of Na with energy, P=0.005 nonobese; P=0.049 obese). On the control diet at 2300 mg Na intake in the nonobese, SBP was 4.7 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.0, 8.5) higher at 2100 kcal compared with 3200 kcal (Figure 3A), and DBP was 3.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.7, 5.5) higher (Figure 3C). In obese at 2300 mg Na intake on the control diet, there were no differences in SBP (0.6 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?3.8 to 4.9; Figure 3B) or DBP (1.8 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 4.5; Figure 3D) between 2100 and 3200 kcal. On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, there were no significant differences in SBP at 2100 versus 3200 kcal regardless of obesity status (2.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 6.0 for nonobese and ?1.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?6.0 to 3.4 for obese). On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, DBP was higher at 2100 versus 3200 kcal in the nonobese (2.1 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.1–4.4), but not in the obese (?0.3 mm Hg (95% CI, ?3.2 to 2.6).
Figure 3. Interaction of absolute Na intake and energy intake on blood pressure at 3 energy levels stratified by obesity status, indicating 3 levels of Na density (L, I, and H), among normal and overweight (body mass index [BMI] <30 kg/m 2 , A and C) and obese (BMI?30 kg/m 2 , B and D) participants on the control diet. The vertical line is drawn at 2300 mg absolute Na intake. Error bars represent ±1 SE. Results from mixed-effects models of continuous Na and energy, adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, cohort, diet type (DASH [Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension] or control), clinical center, and carryover effects stratified by obesity status. DBP indicates diastolic blood pressure; and SBP, systolic blood pressure.
It study was held to choose if the matchmaking ranging from Na and you will BP may vary having time consumption. Multiple trick conclusions emerged. 2nd, due to the fact in the past reported, the outcome out-of Na reduction is actually attenuated in the mode away from the new Dash diet compared to the new handle eating plan, recommending one to regions of diet also influence brand new BP reaction to changes in Na intake. 5,12,thirteen In addition to attenuating the latest BP a reaction to Na, the fresh Dashboard eating plan plus paid off BP, in line with proof one to aspects of diet plan, and a heightened consumption regarding potassium, alone all the way down BP. 14 3rd, the fresh new organization of Na that have opportunity consumption to your BP continuous when this new analyses had been stratified by the competition, apart from DBP certainly whites. Fourth, which have stratification from the being obese condition, larger differences in BP of the time consumption was basically observed some of those who were nonobese compared to over weight.
Whilst the Dashboard–Na analysis managed Na density, and never pure Na intake, the original consequence of this demo was in fact interpreted regarding Na intake instead of Na thickness. Having less reporting performance by Na occurrence can get mirror the fresh absence of study into times consumption in a lot of knowledge. Analysis of the matchmaking out-of Na occurrence with death inside the observational research has considering mixed performance. The study out of Na thickness be2 that have death from the NHANES II follow-right up analysis (Federal Health and Nourishment Test Questionnaire) and out-of NHANES III recommended an inverse connection away from Na and you will heart disease death, though considering Na regarding time consumption. 15,sixteen In these studies, not, Na and energy intake was basically projected using one 24-hour bear in mind, that isn’t enough to imagine a person’s typical fat reduction consumption because of large time-to-go out type both in Na consumption and energy consumption in addition to their proportion. Subsequent, opportunity consumption was implausibly lower in each other knowledge. You are able that noticed relationship ranging from Na intake and you will cardiovascular disease death may be informed me by significantly less than-revealing prejudice, that is, in the event that obese anyone report down Na density and generally are likely to be so you can perish out-of heart disease, new observed relationship get mirror the brand new impression out-of being obese unlike eating plan. The newest evidence away from a prospective cohort study (n=716, 19-year go after-up) aligns into the outcome of the current studies, having stated incidence of cardio situations doubly high one of those about higher instead of reduced quartile out-of Na density (22% instead of eleven%, respectively; P=0.005) predicated on eight-day dinner facts gathered on standard. 17